Joint Pain

Joint pain is the most common problem around the world and increases with the age.

Main Causes:

* injury to joint, increasing the pain
* excessive straining of the joint, or stressing physical activities
* inflammation of joint
* inflammation of the tendons
* inflammation of the bursa

Home Remedies

* Patient should have a bath with warm water to avoid joint pains.
* Oil massage on affected parts, regularly.
* Having tea made out of papaya seeds is very beneficial.
* Garlic roasted with butter proves to be very effective.
* Banana fruit has certain properties that help in restoring lost nutrient in the joints thus is recommended in joint pain cases.
* Drinking warm milk with one table spoon of turmeric helps in avoiding this problem.
* Carrot juice is recommended.
* Performing yogic exercise like gomukh asana regularly.

Common Sports Injuries

The Seven Most Common Sports Injuries:
What weekend warriors need to know of the order of and treating the most common informal injuries

1. Ankle Sprain (ankle turn)
2. Groin pull
3. Hamstring worry
4. Shin splints
5. Knee injury: ACL tear
6. Knee injury: Patellofemoral condition — injury ensuing from the boring movement of your against your bone
7. Tennis nudge

The most common games injuries are strains and sprains

Sprains are to ligaments, the tough bands between in a joint. Suddenly stretching past their boundaries deforms or blubbering them. Strains are injuries to might fibers or , which anchorman muscles to bones.

Preventing the most common leisurewear:
Sometimes preventing common sporting injuries is beyond our control, but many leisure are escapable.

Every calisthenics should start with a temperate warm-up to put a stop to common sports.

And realize to recognize when you've already left it all on the field.

Treating the most common athletic injuries:
Usually, common outdoor are mild there's some destruction, but the whole thing is at a standstill in situation. You should expect that some common games may take months to heal, even with good usage. If a wrench or injury is relentless, in spite of this, the unqualified strength, tendon, or is torn away, and surgery may be needed.

Tennis Elbow Injury

What is Tennis Elbow?
Tennis elbow is a common wound. The curative term for a tennis dig grievance is lateral epicondylitis. Lateral epicondylitis falls into the grouping of Repetitive Stress Injuries. Tennis shove wrong occurs when the ligaments are strained in with a society being repeated again and again. An example of this boring anxiety could be poor backhand system using the wrist somewhat than the arm to hit the ball. This tiresome worry creates many undersized tears in the tendons.

These tears materialize because the tendons do not stretch. Repeated emphasis strains the tendon causing it to fray in a similar way that a rope frays. As the body adapts to this tiny tears with the concept of scar tissue. This scar muscle may build up and give rise to a uneven or erratic surface that may aggravate the tendon case.

Even through the condition is termed 'tennis poke', lateral epicondylitis may be caused by many different actions:
  1. painting
  2. raking
  3. using a coil car user
  4. using scissors
While tennis push hurt is most commonly a effect of tedious tension, it may also grade from a more explosive rapid undertaking leading too much larger tears in the connective hankie.

Causes of tennis jostle

Tennis bump is often caused by overemployment or pedestrian wrench caused by repeated delay (change of direction back) of the wrist against resistance. This may be from activities such as tennis, badminton or squash but is also common after periods of moderate wrist use in day-to-day life

Tennis nudge may be caused by:
  1. A poor backhand practice in tennis.
  2. A racket grip that is too diminutive.
  3. Strings that are too tight.
  4. Playing with wet, important balls.
  5. Repetitive activities such as using a screwdriver, painting or typing

To encourage tennis prod:
  1.  Lift objects with your palm facing your body.
  2. Try establishment exercises with hand weights. With your push cocked and your palm down, repeatedly bend your wrist. Stop if you feel any pain.
  3. Stretch appropriate muscles before start a feasibly hectic commotion by grasping the top part of your fingers and gradually but firmly pulling them back toward your body. Keep your arm fully stretched and your palm facing external.

Shoulder Pain : Symptoms and Treatment

Most of the times shoulder problems can also affects bones in one's body.

The fact is that shoulder pain bothers one in five people in their lives. Pain can hurt you from small injury and can get worsened, if not properly diagnosed. It can sometimes arise suddenly. It can stress up your life right from getting up to sleeping and even leads to depression sometimes.

Most common shoulder problems and their symptoms:

  1. Night pain: One feels the peak of the pain, when goes to bed lie down on the affected side.
  2. Severe sharp catching pain at the front of the shoulder, up to few seconds.
  3. Pain from dangerous physical activities can lead to sudden arise of pain in shoulder.
Immediate Treatment:

Slowly and gently move your arm forward and back. Let them relax. As pain decreases,one can increase number of swings. The duration of the swing can be started from 15 seconds and can be extended up to 3-5 minutes.

Keep your shoulder relaxed and use body motion to swing your arm in small circles. Stand tall and relaxed. Repeat motion and change direction of circles. The duration of the circles should initially be 30 seconds and can be extended up to 3-5 minutes.

Pain Due to HIV

Pain occurs for many reasons and factors:
  1. A symptom of HIV
  2. A symptom of new illness or infections
  3. A side clout of HIV drugs
Regardless of the intention, pain must be identified, assessed, and then fresh in neatness to conserve feature of life.

The Most Common Types of Pain:

The first step in pain management is identifying the type of pain. The most common types of pain incorporate the succeeding:
  1. Peripheral Neuropathy: Pain as a result of sensory nerve damage, mostly in the feet, hands and face. It is described as numbness, tingling, or boiling sensations.
  2. Abdominal Pain: There are many explanations an HIV+ human being would experience gut pain.
  • A side meaning of some HIV drugs.
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) caused by some medicines
  • HIV-related abdominal infections caused by bacteria or tapeworm
  • Bladder and urinary territory infections (unusually in womankind)
  • Menstruation or setting of the uterus, cervix or ovaries
  • Diseases of the visceral area such as irritable entrails

3. Headache: This pain can be mild to intense. Causes of mild headaches involve influence pressure, stress, HIV drug side effects, and every now and then viral illness. Moderate headaches can be caused by sinus or tooth infections. Severe headaches can be caused by brain tumors, flow of blood in the brain, or perversion.

4. Post-Herpetic Pain: Herpes is a private of pathological infections common to HIV+ general public. Once infected, herpes stays for life. Post herpetic pain is existent even after the herpessores have mended. There are a number of types of Herpes:
  • Chickenpox: which causes open, keen sores on the body
  • Herpes Simplex (HSV-2, or genital herpes): which causes throbbing sores in the genitalrea
  • Herpes zoster (HSV-1 or “cold sores”): causes slow sores near the lips
  • Shingles: which is similar to chickenpox but causes excruciating sores along boldness pathways

5. Joint and Muscle Pain: This pain can be mild to severe and linked to circumstances such as arthritis, any kind of hurt, lack of bodybuilding, or just aging. It can also be a side impact of some HIV drugs and high cholesterol medications.

6. Others: Painful skin rashes, upper body pain caused by lung infections such as TB, bacterial pneumonia and PCP pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia). Mouth pain can be caused by mouth ulcers (“scourge sores”) or severe fungoid infections (thrush).

Body Pain can be Worse I

Some of the more common types of inveterate and continuing pain rope in force and joint pain, back and neck pain, and neuropathic pain. These types of pain can be caused by ordeal or degeneration due to age, infection, or genetics. Some injuries to joints and the spine make surgery, but this is no promise for pain support. In fact, many good surgeons warn their patients that the surgery is only to touch up joint flexion and concentration while civilizing functionality.It is important to take action when you experience body pain because for sure this is your body’s way of saying that rather is not working correct. Any body pain help is short-lived because the problem would at a standstill be there. You could take capsule, soak yourself in hot bath or enjoy a comforting acupressure; these are good equipment but it doesn’t solve the problem. Don’t waste your time taking your body pain for granted. Life is too self-conscious for you to be outgoings it enduring pain satisfactorily than enjoying life.

Types of Body pain:
There are atypical types of body pain – arm pain, shoulder pain, digestive pain, knee pain, kidney pain, joint pain and so on. You could occurrence one type of pain or a combination. The pain be could caused by many unusual ins and outs; it could be your jointsorgans, muscles, nerves, diet or emotions. The key to dealing with body pain is to get to the root cause of the problem. As I’ve forever said, body pain is like the tip of the iceberg, there’s a whole lot more underneath the seeming and that’s what you need to know in edict for your body to gain functioning well over

Other common causes of body pain:

Tendonitis is inflammation in a tendon or tendon covering. It can be caused by a rapid injury but is most often the effect of uninteresting doings such as typing, or informal, such as swimmingtennis or golf. The symptoms of tendonitis can kind from kindheartedness or stiffness to pain, which is better with movement or pastime.
Frozen assume:
As its name suggests, freezing bear causes blank loss of the span of submission of the take up joint in all instructions. fozen accept may conclusion from tendernessscarringthickening and decline of the capsule that surrounds the normal carry joint. Any injury to the take on can lead to stationary refuse, including tendonitisbursitis and gyrator cuff injury. 

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex regional pain syndrome, also known as CRPS is a rare, chronic (long-term) and progressive condition characterized by severe pain, inflammation and changes in the skin. Patients commonly describe the pain as a burning sensation, which affects one of the arms, legs, hands or feet.

CRPS used to be known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy - however, when possible causes of CRPS were later discovered, the name was changed.

Experts are not sure what the cause of CRPS is. We know that injury or surgery may have occurred before the onset of symptoms. However, in many cases no previous injury took place and there is no evidence of neurological or physical damage to the affected area.

According to the National Health Service (NHS), UK, and the International Association for the Study of Pain, there are two types of CRPS:

    * CRPS Type 1 - used to be known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, Sudeck's atrophy, reflex neurovascular dystrophy, or algoneurodystrophy. No damage has occurred. It is triggered by an apparent trivial injury, such as a fractured or sprained ankle.
    * CRPS Type 2 - used to be known as causalgia. This is triggered by a more serious injury, such as a broken bone or some surgical operation. It may also be caused by a serious infection. In all cases there is clear evidence that nerve damage has occurred.

Treatment for CRPS, which usually includes a combination of physical therapy (physiotherapy) and medications, is much more effective if it starts soon after the onset of symptoms.

As the condition is very difficult to diagnose, it is not possible to make reliable estimates of the number of people affected. A significant number of patients never tell their GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) or doctor if their symptoms are mild. The National Health Service (NHS), UK, believes that approximately 1 in every 2,000 accidents or incidents of trauma probably result in CRPS.

Although CRPS can affect people of any age, first symptoms tend to become noticeable in patients aged between 40 and 60 years. Experts say that more females are affected than males.

The severity of symptoms and frequency of episodes of CRPS vary enormously. Some individuals have repeated CRPS episodes throughout their life, while others have symptoms which go away forever after a few months.

According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary:

Complex regional pain syndrome type I is "diffuse persistent pain usually in an extremity often associated with vasomotor disturbances, trophic changes, and limitation or immobility of joints; frequently follows some local injury."

What are the signs and symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?
A symptom is something the patient senses and describes, while a sign is something other people, such as the doctor notice. For example, drowsiness may be a symptom while dilated pupils may be a sign.

The predominant symptom of CRPS is pain:

    * Pain - the pain is severe and continuous. Patients describe it as a burning pain. Some have said it feels like a combination of burning and electrical shocks. Part or all of a limb may be affected, such as an arm, leg, hand or foot. The pain is triggered by an injury and is much worse than one would expect. For example, a patient who sprained an ankle may experience an unbearable burning sensation.

      The affected limb, or part of the limb can become hypersensitive. If touched, bumped on, or exposed to temperature changes the pain can be severe.

      If symptoms are severe there may eventually be muscle atrophy (wasting) in the affected limb. This is because the patient does not use the limb due of the pain.

Other possible signs and symptoms include:

    * Changes in skin temperature - the skin may be sweaty on some occasions, and cold and clammy in others.
    * Changes in skin color - there may be blotches or streaks on the skin. It may range in color from very pale to pink. Sometimes the affected area of skin may take on a blue tinge.
    * Skin texture - the skin may sometimes seem thin and shiny.
    * Nails and hair - hair and nails may grow at unusual speeds (too slow or too fast).
    * Joints - the affected joint(s) may be painful, stiff and inflamed.
    * Mobility - the patient may find it harder to move the affected limb or part of limb.

CRPS generally progress in 3 stages. Not everyone will experience all three stages. Some people may have symptoms in different stages.

    * Stage 1 of CRPS - typically lasts from 1 to 3 months. There is a severe, burning pain in one of the limbs. There may be muscle spasms (involuntary muscle contractions), joint stiffness and fast-growing hair and nails. Skin color and temperature may also change as blood vessels in the area are affected.
    * Stage 2 of CRPS - usually lasts for 3 to 6 months. Pain in the affected limb, hand or foot may get worse, as may alterations in skin texture and color. Muscle tone may weaken. Inflammation and stiffness may worsen.
    * Stage 3 of CRPS - changes that have occurred so far are usually irreversible at this stage. There will be significant loss of muscle tone in the affected limb, bones may have become contorted, while the joints have become stiffer. The patient will likely find it very hard to use the affected limb. Patients who receive prompt treatment for CRPS early on are very unlikely to ever reach this stage.

What are the causes of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

    * Type 1 - occurs after an injury or illness that did not directly damage nerves in the affected area. Approximately 90% of CRPS cases are Type 1.
    * Type 2 - follows an evident nerve injury.

Many CRPS cases occur after a forceful trauma to a limb, such as shrapnel blast or gunshot wound. Surgery, heart attacks, infections, sprained ankles and fractures may also trigger CRPS.

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Experts do not know exactly why such injuries or medical events trigger CRPS, even though the condition has been recognized by the medical profession for over 150 years. Specialists mostly agree that there is probably more than one single cause. Some argue that CRPS is a combination of different conditions with the same symptoms - they say it is not a single medical condition.

The psychological theory

Sigmund Freud, (1856-1939), an Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry put forward the idea that CRPS might be mainly a psychological condition, caused by some unknown underlying psychological difficulty or trauma which make patients feel pain. As subsequent research has demonstrated that CRPS patients undergo real physical changes in their nervous system, this theory has been largely discarded. Other studies have shown that CRPS patients do not have a history of mental illness prior to the onset of symptoms.

Sympathetic nervous system malfunction theory

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the 3 parts of the autonomic nervous system (that regulate heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration), along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems. The SNS's general action is to mobilize our body's resources under stress - to trigger the flight-or-fight response.

If we find ourselves in danger, for example, if a huge drunken man walks in your direction in a dark street at night, your sympathetic nervous system will start to accelerate your heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, as well as the level of certain hormones (adrenalin) - you are being prepared for a sudden, short-term release of energy, so that you can either fight better or run away faster (flight-or-fight response).

Some people believe that a physical injury, for example, may cause the SNS to release catecholamines. Catecholamines are 'fight-or-flight' hormones. Due to an unknown underlying problem, catecholamines are thought to activate pain receptors. Pain receptors are nerve endings which send pain signals to the brain (which makes you feel pain). They say that is why the post-injury pain experienced by CRPS patients is much greater than one would expect from that injury.

In other words, it is not the injury that causes the intense pain, but rather the way the body has responded to it.

The sympathetic nervous system has other functions too, such as regulating the blood vessels of the skin. A sympathetic nervous system malfunction might result in changes of skin color and temperature; one of the signs linked to CRPS.

Some cases of CRPS, however, have no evidence at all of any sympathetic nervous system malfunction.

Immune system malfunction theory

Some believe that Type 2 CRPS is caused by a problem with the immune system. When the body has an injury its immune system makes that area inflamed (swollen) as it attempts to stop infection from spreading. For some reason not yet known to us, theorists say, inflammation continues well after the injury has healed. The persistent inflammation irritates the nerves in that area, resulting in pain.
Diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)
There is no single test that can determine the presence of CRPS. Diagnosis is based on a physical exam, looking out for swollen joints, and changes to skin temperature and appearance, and the patient's medical history. The doctor may order the following diagnostic tests to help make a diagnosis:

    * Bone scan - a radioactive liquid is injected into a vein, allowing the bones to be viewed with a special camera. Increased circulation to the joints in the affected area may be detected.
    * Sympathetic nervous system tests - the aim is to identify possible anomalies in the patient's sympathetic nervous system.

          o Sweat test - the amount of sweat produced by the affected limb is compared to sweat production of the unaffected limb. If there is a big difference, the likelihood of CRPS is greater.
          o Thermography - an infrared thermometer measures skin temperature of specific parts of the body, including the affected area. If skin temperature in the affected area is too high or too low, it could indicate CRPS.
          o Electrodiagnostic testing - wires are attached to the skin and the electrical activity of nerves is measured. If readings are abnormal it could mean there is nerve damage, indicating possible presence of type 2 CRPS.
    * X-ray - in later stages of CRPS, X-rays may detect levels of mineral loss in the bones. The doctor may order X-ray to rule out problems with joints and bones.
    * MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan - an MRI machine uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the inside of the body. The doctor may order an MRI scan to rule out underlying problems with bones or tissue.
    * Blood tests - these may be ordered to rule out underlying infection, or rheumatoid arthritis.
    * A biopsy - a small sample of tissue from the affected area is removed and checked for cancerous cells.

According to the National Health Service (NHS), UK, experts have created a diagnostic checklist to help GPs (general practitioners, primary care physicians), as well as other healthcare professionals. If ALL of the following signs and symptoms are present, a CRPS diagnosis can be made:

    * The patient has recently suffered an injury or some kind of trauma.
    * There is persistent pain in a limb that is disproportionate to the original trauma or injury.
    * Swelling and changes to skin temperature and appearance are evident.
    * No other diagnosis could explain the signs and symptoms better than CRPS.

What are the treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?
Treatment is most effective if carried out as soon as possible after the first signs and symptoms appear. In some cases even remission (total disappearance of signs and symptoms) is possible.

CRPS treatment strategy is usually multi-disciplinary, with the use of different types of medications combined with specific physical therapies.

A multi-disciplinary approach (a number of different specialists):

    * Neurologist - this is a doctor who is specialized in treating nervous system illnesses and conditions.
    * Physical therapist - physical therapy is a branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially targeted exercises and devices to help people improve or regain their physical abilities. For CRPS patients this may include regaining their range of movement and coordination, as well as preventing muscle wastage and contortion of the bones.

      Physical therapy is the key factor in successfully treating CRPS.

Some patients may find physical therapy initially painful. Studies have shown that for those who persist with their physical therapy, symptoms of pain generally improve dramatically.

    * Occupational therapist - trained to evaluate patients with certain conditions and diseases, including CRPS, to determine the impact of their condition on activities and daily living. They can design and prescribe assistive devices which can help with the activities of daily living.
    * Psychologist - the patient may require help in coping with living with a chronic, painful condition.
    * Social worker - in most developed nations a social worker will provide the patient with information about services that are available.
    * Pain relief specialist - this is generally a doctor with specialist training in relieving pain.

Medications and electrical stimulation

    * NDSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) - OTC (over-the-counter, no prescription required) NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen sodium or aspirin may relieve pain and inflammation.

    * Antidepressants - such as amitriptyline may be prescribed for neuropathic pain (pain caused by a damaged nerve). Should not be taken by those with a history of heart disease. Side effects may include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation and problems urinating. Individuals who feel drowsy should not drive or operate heavy machinery.
    * Anticonvulsants - these were originally designed for epilepsy treatment. However, they are also useful in treating nerve pain. Gabapentin is the most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant for CRPS. As side effects may include loss of coordination, drowsiness, dizziness and fatigue, patients may have to refrain from driving or operating heavy machinery.
    * Corticosteroids - such as prednisone may reduce inflammation.
    * Bone-loss medications - such as alendronate (Fosamax) and calcitonin (Miacalcin) may also be prescribed.
    * Opioid medications (opiates) - Opioids (opiates) are a class of drugs that are commonly prescribed for their analgesic or pain-killing, properties. They include substances such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and methadone. Opioids are not suitable if the patient has a history of substance abuse or lung disease. Codeine and diamorphine can bring short-term pain relief in severe CRPS cases. Opiates should not be used long-term because of their potential side effects. Long-term use also carries a risk of addiction. Side effects may include drowsiness (improves) and constipation. Individuals who feel drowsy should not drive or operate heave machinery.
    * Sympathetic nerve-blocking drugs - an anesthetic may be injected, blocking the nerve fibers in the affected nerves.
    * Topical analgesics - topical means "applied onto the skin". Several types of creams, such a lidocaine, or a combination of ketamine, clonidine and amitriptyline may reduce hypersensitivity.
    * Heat and cold therapy - sweating and inflammation may respond well to the application of cold. If the affected area is too cold, heat therapy may help.
    * TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) - electrical impulses are applied to nerve endings, often providing pain relief.
    * Spinal cord stimulation - tiny electrodes are inserted into the spinal cord. This is done by a doctor. Spinal cord stimulation can provide effective pain relief for many patients.

What are the possible complications of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?
If complications do occur, they are nearly always because the condition remained untreated, or treatment started late.

    * Muscle atrophy (muscle withers) - if a limb is not used for any reason, which in this case would be pain, the muscles begin to waste.
    * Contracture - the hand, fingers or foot, depending on which area is affected, may contract into a fixed position as the muscles gradually tighten.
    * CRPS may spread - CRPS symptoms may spread to the opposite limb, hand or foot (mirror-image type), to a distant part of the body (independent type), or to a nearby site (continuity type).

Advances in pain relief

Pain, unfortunately, is a horrible necessity of life. It protects people by alerting them to things that might injure them. But some long-term pain has nothing to do with any obvious injury. One estimate suggests that one in six adults suffer from a “chronic pain” condition.

Steve McMahon, a pain researcher at King’s College, London, says that if skin is damaged — for instance with a hot iron — an area of sensitivity develops around the outside of the burn, where although untouched and undamaged by the iron, the behaviour of the nerve fibres is disrupted. As a result, heightened sensitivity and abnormal pain sensations occur in the surrounding skin. Chronic pain, he says, may similarly be caused not by damage to the body, but because weak pain signals become amplified.

This would also help explain why chronic pains such as lower-back pain and osteoarthritis fail to respond well to traditional pain therapies.

But now an entirely new kind of drug, called Tanezumab, has been developed. It is an antibody for a protein called nerve growth factor (NGF), which is vital for new nerve growth during development. NGF, it turns out, is also crucial in the regulation of the sensitisation of pain in chronic conditions.

Kenneth Verburg, one of the researchers involved in the development of Tanezumab at Pfizer, says it is not exactly clear what role NGF plays in normal physiology, but after an injury which involves tissue damage and inflammation, levels of NGF increase dramatically. The NGF seems to be involved in transmitting the pain signal. As a consequence, blocking NGF reduces chronic pain.

Tanezumab must still complete the final stages of clinical trials before it can become a weapon in the toolkit for reducing human suffering.

But unexpected pains do not always come from the body.

According to Irene Tracey, a pain researcher at the University of Oxford, how pain is experienced also depends upon a person’s state of mind. If successive patients suffer the same burn, the extent to which it hurts will depend on whether one is anxious, depressed, happy or distracted.

Such ideas are being explored with brain scans which suggest that even if a low level of pain is being sent to the brain, the signal can be turned up by the “mind” itself. Indeed, patients can even be tricked into feeling pain.

In one experiment volunteers were given a powerful analgesic and subjected to a painful stimulus — which, because of the analgesic, they could not feel. Then they were told the drug had worn off (although it had not), and subsequently complained that the stimulus hurt.

People can, therefore, feel pain simply because it is expected. They can fail to feel pain for exactly the same reasons, for example when they are given placebos or are distracted. But although pain may be subjective, that does not mean the final experience is controlled solely by the mind.

A recent paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has shown that genes play a role in determining sensitivity to pain.

One gene, known as SCN9A, codes for a protein that allows the channels along which nerve signals are transmitted, to remain active for longer, and thus transmit more pain signals. It seems likely that this protein will attract a great deal more analgesic research. Variations in SCN9A may also explain why some patients prefer different classes of painkillers.

Although pain may be a horrible necessity, there is no doubt that humanity could cope with far less of the chronic sort. Understanding how the mind, the body and people’s genes interact to cause pain should bring more relief.

Childhood Behavioral Problems Linked To Chronic Pain In Adulthood

It is well-known that there is an association between childhood behavioral problems and psychological problems later in life such as depression, anxiety, panic disorder and the like. However, until recently, there has not been a clear link between childhood behavioral problems and chronic pain in adulthood.

In a recent study, British researchers analyzed data gathered from following over 20,000 children beginning in 1958. This group, or cohort, was periodically assessed at different times over the course of over 40 years (at the ages of 7, 11, 16, 42, and 45 years). Behavioral data was gathered by using standardized measures and questionnaires; specific behaviors such as restlessness, stealing, obedience, lying, and bullying (among others) were looked at.

The study revealed that there indeed seems to be a link between severe behavioral disturbances in childhood and chronic pain in adulthood. For instance, the risk of having chronic pain at age 45 doubled for those individuals whose teachers had reported severe "persistent" behavior problems at ages 7, 11, and 16 years.

The mechanism for this association is believed to possibly be something called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Basically the HPA axis is a signaling system between brain structures (hypothalamus and pituitary) and the body (adrenal gland).

The HPA axis is intimately tied in with both emotions and stress on the one hand, and physiological responses on the other. In other words, it is a major "bridge" between the mind and the body, and as such is a good preliminary candidate for the link between childhood behavioral patterns and chronic pain later in life.

It is possible that in children with severe behavioral problems, HPA axis function becomes disturbed early-on, leading to persistent physical problems later in life. It is important to note that this is a very preliminary conclusion; there may be much more going on here, and further research is certainly needed..

Source :

Early detection can help you save on health cost I

Prevention is better than cure, as they say. The growing health insurance segment bears this truism out, which is witnessing almost 100% claims ratio. Insurers say that some 16 out of every 100 policyholders register claims under the health policy every year. In other words, the cost of treating 16 policyholders is equal to the premium collected from 100. 

Insurers have now discovered that they can make substantial money out of health insurance if they can prevent one out of 100 policyholders from falling ill. To this effect, they are now offering freebies like free health check-ups and discounts on gym memberships to policyholders.

The same financial logic applies to individuals as well. For instance, getting a cavity filled in early will help save several times the amount on a root canal treatment. Most ailments requiring surgery do not occur overnight, but build-up over a period of time and in many cases, can be detected early through regular checks. Doctors say, you almost save up to 50% on health costs with regular check-ups, exercise and balanced diet. The idea is to avoid severe health complications which could also take a toll on your biological as well as financial health.

Monitor BP and sugar levels 
Blood pressure is a function of stress and anxiety rather than heredity. Such cases can be kept monitored through counselling, yoga and meditation instead of direct medication if the BP is not alarmingly high. “You can read the early signals such as a constant headache and body ache. Patients suffering from severe stress and hypertension should get their BP checked at least once every week.

Otherwise, once a month check-up would suffice,” explains Dr T Samuel, a senior medical practitioner. BP test can be done for as low Rs 50 with a general physician. Diabetes is a function of heredity, hence it is better to monitor your sugar levels twice a year if any of the parents or grand parents are diabetic.

Exercise and side-effects 
Join a gym, shake a leg to some music or just go for a brisk walk in the neighbourhood park for half an hour everyday. There are a plethora of exercise options. First, it will help you destress, thereby keeping tabs on your BP. It helps production of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good” cholesterol. It helps you lose weight and maintain an ideal BMI (body mass index) and promote better sleep, leading to a healthier lifestyle.

A cervical or a lower back pain doesn’t sound new to most working professionals who spend 90% of their time sitting in front of the computer. “Just taking a walk every half an hour in the office may sound like a breezy suggestion. But it helps you break the monotonous posture. This combined with regular exercise, good posture and stretches should help the pain ease up,” explains Dr KS Ramakrishnan, a Mumbai–based senior physiotherapist.

Check your oral hygiene 
You don’t have to walk to your dentist only when you develop a cavity or for a root canal. It could be for flossing, threading, crowding of teeth or just a gum check. If your gums hurt or bleed while brushing or flossing, or you experience a persistent bad breath, you should visit a dentist. These could be early signs for persistent dental problems. 

Natural Treatments & Home Remedies ( Session-2 )

Honey-lemon Tea

If you’re in a job which requires you to talk almost all day, then you might often experience sore throats.

This could also be a sign of the common colds or a flu coming on – and you can counteract the pain on your throat by gargling with warm salt water.

Then, follow it up with a cup of hot honey-lemon tea and you’ll feel better in no time at all.

Honey, Mustard, Potato

No, this is not a recipe for a salad – they are actually the natural first-aids which you can use to treat a burn.

Don’t subscribe to the myth that rubbing toothpaste on the burnt area will help heal the burn.

Sure, it may feel cool and soothing to your skin but it is not actually doing anything to help heal your burnt skin.

What you can use instead is honey which has antibacterial properties; a slice of raw potato whose juices will soothe the burn; or mustard which can also double up as a burn salve.

Finally, Aloe Vera gel is also a great natural treatment for burns, which you can apply after rinsing the affected area with cold water.

Chamomile Tea

If you have digestive problems, down a cup or two of chamomile tea.

What the herb in the tea does is to relax the spasms in your stomach.

Tart Cherry Juice

One of the most common pains that most people immediately treat with medication is muscle pains.

Let’s say that you just came from a workout and you feel drained, and it seems as if every muscle in your body is aching.

For this, you can depend on the natural treatment of drinking a bottle of tart cherry juice. This helps the sore muscles on your body recover, and it also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


If you are experiencing arthritis or joint injuries, the Indian spice turmeric will work wonders for you.

All you need to do is include a couple of tablespoons of turmeric or yellow curries while cooking meat or any curry dish – and you will generally feel better afterward.

With these top 10 natural remedies for the most common aches, pains and health complaints, you will feel better afterwards – and you would not have to go through any side effects at all.

Natural Treatments & Home Remedies ( Session-1 )

1. Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar may be a staple ingredient in most kitchens, but did you know that this is a great natural remedy for heartburn?

If you are experiencing heartburn, it could be due to overeating, stress, indulging on too much spicy food or having too many trips to the refrigerator to steal a snack or two at midnight.

Rather than taking your typical dose of antacids, you can down a spoonful or two of apple cider vinegar.

What this does is to break down the excess foods that you have consumed and restore the normal balance in your stomach.

2. Natural Oils

If you feel a headache coming on, try rubbing lavender or peppermint oil on your temple.

You can also apply the soothing natural medication on your neck – and sniffing its aroma may actually lessen the pain that you are feeling – as indicated in science of aromatherapy.

Another type of natural oil that you can use to treat toothaches is clove oil. That shooting pain on your gum is no fun at all and while you are waiting for your dentist to address the problem, place a couple of drops of clove oil on your tooth and gum.

Another alternative is to bite on a crushed garlic clove, which has antibacterial properties.

3. Green Tea

Yet another natural treatment that you can use as a substitute for antihistamines is green tea.

When you have this habit of reaching for the really strong prescription medications like antihistamines the minute that even the mildest of allergies attack – it will actually cause your body’s immune system to get weak.

As such, it pays to go for natural and body-friendly treatments like green tea. Down two to three cups of this soothing beverage when you have an allergy attack and wait for this natural wonder to work.

In addition to being a natural antihistamine, green tea also has the following benefits to your health:

Lowers the blood pressure and prevents hypertension.
Provides protection against cardiovascular diseases.
Protects against certain types of cancer.
Speeds up the body’s recovery after a heart attack.
Thins the blood and helps prevent blood clotting.

4. Cayenne Pepper

Although cayenne pepper puts the sizzle and spice in most foods, it can be actually soothing when used as a natural remedy for cuts.

Aside from stopping the bleeding immediately, sprinkling cayenne pepper on the affected area will actually ease the pain.

5. Flaxseed

Women who are experiencing discomfort due to undergoing the menopausal stage will be glad to know that there is a natural remedy for it: flaxseed.

Hot flashes are a particularly common problem for menopausal women and flaxseed can effectively prevent this.

All you need to do is mix about 1.4 ounces of ground flaxseed into the foods that you are eating and it will relieve menopausal symptoms as effectively as prescription medications.


Fibrositis (fibromyalgia syndromes, myofascial pain syndromes) are a group of disorders characterized by chronic widespread aches and pains in the muscles, muscle sheath and connective tissues of tendons, muscles, bones and joints, with associated tenderness.
The pain and stiffness (fibromyalgia) may affect the whole body or may be restricted to certain parts of the body, as in myofascial pain syndromes. Fibromyalgia throughout the body is more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to develop myofascial pain or fibromyalgia in a particular area e.g. a shoulder ,from a work related or sports  muscle strain injury.
It is a common condition seen in 4 to 11% of the population and is  more prevalent in women. It can  affect any age group. It is not serious or life-threatening, but persistent symptoms can be very disruptive.


Unknown. However, fibromyalgia may be triggered by mental or physical stress, inadequate sleep, an injury, exposure to dampness or cold, certain infections and possibly related to imbalance in brain chemicals or auto-immune disorder.
It is not a psychological disorder.

Prevention :
Avoid risk factors when possible.
Get adequate sleep.
General conditioning exercises

Scorpion venom could replace morphine as painkiller I

Scorpion venom is notoriously poisonous but it can potentially replace dangerous and addictive painkillers like morphine, says a new study.

Michael Gurevitz, professor, Tel Aviv University’s (TAU) Department of Plant Sciences, is investigating new ways for developing a novel painkiller based on natural compounds found in scorpion venom.

These compounds have gone through millions of years of evolution and some show high efficacy and specificity for certain components of the body with no side-effects, he says.

Peptide toxins found in scorpion venom interact with sodium channels in nervous and muscular systems - and some of these sodium channels communicate pain, says Gurevitz.

“The mammalian body has nine different sodium channels of which only a certain subtype delivers pain to our brain,” adds Gurevitz.

“We are trying to understand how toxins in the venom interact with sodium channels at the molecular level and particularly how some of the toxins differentiate among channel subtypes.”

“If we figure this out, we may be able to slightly modify such toxins, making them more potent and specific for certain pain mediating sodium channels,” Gurevitz continues.

“With this information, engineering of chemical derivatives that mimic the scorpion toxins would provide novel pain killers of high specificity that have no side effects.

In his research, Gurevitz is concentrating on the Israeli yellow scorpion, one of the most potent scorpions in the world. Its venom contains more than 300 peptides of which only a minor fraction has been explored.

The reason for working with this venom, he says, is the large arsenal of active components such as the toxins that have diversified during hundreds of millions of years under selective pressure.

During that process, some toxins have evolved with the capability to directly affect mammalian sodium channel subtypes whereas others recognise and affect sodium channels of invertebrates such as insects, says a university release.

This deviation in specificity is a lesson on how toxins may be manipulated at will by genetic engineering, he says.